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Spring 2018

Biology Courses:

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BIO104 - Fundamentals of Cell Biology

Credits: 3

Catalog Description: Introduces basic chemistry, the structure, function, and biochemistry of cells, and the scientific method. Laboratory exercises develop skills including use of binocular microscopes and measuring. This is a preparatory course, for students with little or no recent experience in biology and chemistry, who plan on taking additional biology courses. Two class hours, two lab hours. Prerequisite: Completion of the Genesee Community College reading requirement and completion of the Genesee Community College math requirement or concurrent enrollment in MAT 108 or MAT 092. Students planning to enroll in Physical Therapy Assistant or a Math or Natural Science program should choose MAT092. Not open to students with credit in BIO 115, BIO 152 or higher. (Not for credit in Math/Science curriculum)

Lecture: 2 hrs.

Lab: 2 hrs.

Course Learning Outcomes (CLOs):
Upon successful completion of this course as documented through writing, objective testing, case studies, laboratory practice, and/or classroom discussion, the student will be able to:

Scientific Method and Introduction to Living Things
1. Students will identify the methods scientists use to explore natural phenomena, including observation, hypothesis development, measurement, data collection, experimentation and the evaluation of the data as documented by performance on a test or quiz and the department comprehensive final.*
2. List and give examples of a minimum of 4 characteristic of all living things.
3. Describe and list examples of the 3 Domains of living things.
4. Describe and give examples of a minimum of 7 levels of organization of life.

Inorganic and Organic Chemistry
1. Describe atomic and molecular structure.
2. Compare and contrast ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds.
3. List a minimum of 4 properties of water and explain how they are a result of water's polar nature.
4. Define pH and related terms (acid, base, pH number scale)
5. Categorize organic molecules into the 4 major groups using characteristics such as elemental components, biological and physical properties, sources, and uses in organisms.

Classification, Structure and Function of Cells
1. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells by identifying structural components.
2. Identify a minimum of 10 organelles in Eukaryotic cells and describe their function, documented on the department comprehensive final.
3. Explain the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure.
4. Describe the mechanisms by which substances may cross the plasma membrane including active or passive process, and the transport mechanism (protein carrier or channel, protein pump, directly through the phospholipid bilayer, via vesicles, etc). Provide specific examples of substances that are likely to cross the membrane by each mechanism.
5. Predict the movement of fluid across membranes based on principles of osmolarity.

Cellular energy
1. State the laws of thermodynamics and give two examples of how they apply to living things.
2. Describe ATP, ADP, phosphorylation and their importance to cellular activity.
3. Describe the structure and function of enzymes in living systems.
4. Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration in writing.
5. Explain how photosynthesis is the primary pathway of energy capture in metabolic pathways and how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are interdependent.

1. Label a diagram of the cell cycle and explain what occurs in each stage.
2. Draw and label the stages of mitosis and explain the events of each stage.
3. Identify the major differences between mitosis and meiosis and explain the purpose of each type of nuclear division.
4. Define genetic terminology including crossing over, dominant, recessive, allele, phenotype, genotype, heterozygous, homozygous, carrier, karyotype, non-disjunction, single-gene mutation.
5. Build a model of DNA, and demonstrate semi-conservative replication.
6. Describe the process of protein synthesis(transcription and translation) in an essay.
7. Explain the technique of DNA fingerprinting and at least three ways in which it is being used.

Laboratory Skills: Students will demonstrate these in laboratory and answer questions on the department comprehensive final.
1. Display appropriate safety practices in the laboratory, as outlined by the instructor while using chemicals, sharps, and biological specimens.
2. Estimate volume, length, and mass using appropriate metric units by measuring with a meter stick, graduated cylinder, pipette, micropipette and balance.
3. Determine the pH of solutions using indicator paper and or pH meter.
4. Determine the presence of carbohydrates using Benedicts and IKI tests, proteins using Biuret test, and lipids using Sudan test.
5. Properly use and store a microscope.
6. Prepare, stain, and observe wet mount microscope slides; use the correct focus knob to focus on microscopic specimens at all powers.*
7. Focus on specimens using oil with the oil immersion lens. Clean the oil immersion lens and prepared slides after using immersion oil.
8. Sketch and correctly label microscopic specimens and measure and estimate the size of structures viewed through the microscope.
9. Experiment using enzymes and substrate to determine the effects of pH, temperature, concentration and inhibitors on production of products.
10. Experiment to determine the effects of isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic solutions on cells and tissues.
11. Experiment with fermentation or aerobic respiration to illustrate gas exchange and fuel use in living organisms.
12. Construct models of organic molecules (DNA, sugar, amino acid, and lipid).
13. Correlate models such as the cell and its organelles with actual structures seen in photomicrographs and with the microscope.

* This course objective has been identified as a student learning outcome that must be formally assessed as part of the Comprehensive Assessment Plan of the college. All faculty teaching this course must collect the required data and submit the required analysis and documentation at the conclusion of the semester to the Office of Institutional Research and Assessment.

Content Outline:
A. Introduction
1. Characteristics of Life
2. Unity and Diversity of Life
3. Organization of Life
4. Scientific Method - Nature of Science
5. Scientific Measurement

B. Chemistry of Life
1. Elements, Atoms, Molecules, Ions
2. Bonding and Chemical Reactions
a. Hydrolysis
b. Dehydration Synthesis
3. Exchanges and Substitutions
4. Inorganic Molecules
a. Ions
b. Acids, Bases, Salts, Buffers
5. Importance of Water
6. Biologically Important Organic Molecules
a. Carbohydrates
b. Lipids
c. Proteins
i. Enzyme structure and function
ii. Importance of antibodies
7. Nucleotides and nucleic acids

C. The Cell - Structure and Function
1. 3 Domains
2. Cell size
3. Prokaryotic cell structure
4. Eukaryotic cell structure
a. Nucleus
b. Cytoplasm
c. Organelles
d. Membrane
e. Plant vs. animal
5. Transport across the plasma membrane
a. Passive vs. active
b. Diffusion
c. facilitated diffusion
d. osmosis: osmolarity and tonicity
e. active transport
f. vesicular transport mechanisms

D. Energy and Life
1. Energy - ATP
2. Cellular Respiration
a. Glycolysis
b. Krebs cycle
c. Electron transport
3. Fermentation
4. Photosynthesis

E. Continuance of Life - Genetics
1. Cell Reproduction
a. Asexual
b. Sexual
2. Cell Division
a. Mitosis and Cytokinesis
b. Meiosis
3. Molecular Genetics
b. Replication of DNA
c. Protein Synthesis
d. Genetic Code
e. Control of Gene Expression
f. Mutations
4. Biotechnology
a. Techniques
b. Applications

F. Laboratory experiments and modeling
1. Lab safety
2. Measurement
3. Chemistry and structure of biomolecules
4. Acids Bases and Buffers
5. How to use the microscope
6. Cell study with the microscope
7. Osmosis and diffusion
8. Enzymes
9. Fermentation and respiration
10. DNA modeling
11. Protein Synthesis modeling
12. DNA forensics - gel electrophoresis

Effective Term: Fall 2015